Асташова Г.В. Миграция как общий процесс / Г.В. Асташова, Н.В. Дёрина, Е.А. Филина // Международный журнал социальных и гуманитарных наук. – 2017. –Т. 2. №3. – С. 80-84.
МИГРАЦИЯ КАК ОБЩИЙ ПРОЦЕСС
Г.В. Асташова, канд. пед. наук, доцент
Н.В. Дёрина, канд. филол. наук, доцент
Е.А. Филина, студент
Магнитогорский государственный технический университет им. Г.И. Носова
(Россия, г. Магнитогорск)
Аннотация. В статье уделяется внимание истории миграции. Причины миграции были связаны с климатическими бедствиями, наводнениями, пожарами, войнами, снегопадами и метелями, ураганами, холодом и голодом. Миграция всегда была проблемой для людей, мигрирующих к другим ареалам проживания. Перемещение происходило как индивидуально, так и в группах. Миграция всегда имела место во всех странах и континентах и была большим вызовом для людей в поисках подходящей территории для проживания. Люди искали лучшую жизнь, более удобный климат, условия жизни, пытаясь избежать войн и бедствий. Статья представляет небольшое исследование по современному состоянию миграции в разных странах. Рассмотрены причины миграционного потока в Европейские страны.
Ключевые слова: миграция, новые земли, ареалы проживания, расселение, благоприятные климатические и экономические условия, вызовы.
Migration is the process tracing back to the first settlements of ancient tribes. Ancient people migrated from the island to island, from one territory to another, to the areas with more comfortable climatic and economic conditions.
For all the times migration was risky and dangerous. The people faced climatic disasters, river falls, fires, snowfalls and snowstorms, hunger, hurricanes, cold, unfriendly meeting of native people in other lands. So migration has always been a challenge for the people migrating to other living areas. Thus migrating may be individual, in groups or Great Resettlement of nations. Migration has always been presented in all countries and continents. The people were seeking for better life, more comfortable climate, conditions to find and produce food and cattle, to grow up children, trying to avoid wars and disasters.
Unfortunately, there are no vivid written resources, traces and sources of information in ancient times about migration. We may approximately suppose the ways of migration according to archeological findings and artifacts in different countries of the world.
A great source of information of migrants may be obtained from the “Bible”. It gives the richest materials about the Great Resettlement of people. We will take into consideration the historical events of this process as the background of the study of causes of the “state of the art” situations, the prospects and consequences .
As it is known the most prominent facts of migration may be referred to beginning of 15th centuries and later. By this time all the coastal countries and people living in islands, on the sea coast, on the river banks and in peninsulas, having water-going vehicles moved to different territories on various reasons. The rich and developed countries were fighting for colonies and brought slaves and rare materials from the African and Asian countries to America and Europe, organizing the process of forced migration. The primitive tribes living around the great continents were constantly migrating by different means: across the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and jungles.
Materials and methods
Monitoring all migration history we may see that it is the history of the tragical departures due to low life style living, danger, risks and illness. All the countries have the different geographical and historical conditions so the living standards of boarding countries may be the main reason of legal and illegal migration. In particular this is the main point of disagreement between Mexico and United States of America. More than 300 years the problem of Mexican migrations into USA is urgent. So Mexico takes the first place in the list of migration. The migration flows from Mexican States reach now millions of people. Last 40 years more than 12 million people moved to the USA. So these facts are growing with hardening of bordering control in USA and children birth in Mexico, but it can’t stop the process. So the people migrating to USA from Mexico may be divided into well-educated and illiteral, so most all of them are illegal. This means that they cannot have legal work, insurance, health-care, kindergarten, bank operations and others.
To date, all the developed countries “suffer” from migration and its consequences. Japan and China, India and China, China and Mongolia, South Korea and North Korea, Indonesia and islands, Canada and USA, Latin American countries and USA, Panama and USA, Asian countries and Australia, Indian Region Countries and Australia, African and Arabian people are migrating to many European, Latin and American countries.
This process survives peaks and falls. The reason are common and regular: climate disaster, hunger, flooding, cold, wars, economic crisis in employment, low living level, no educational chances for youth, epidemics. So, we may say about periodical character of migration.
As statistics put it, the consequences seem to be common also for recipient economics: a great flow of cheap labor forces and the rise of economics. In case of legal migration, it gives the newcomers the chance for passport, education, working visa, citizenship, official registration, the opportunity to learn new language, to get a job, to improve living standards and conditions. Some of them or most of them may assimilate to native speaking community, upgrade their qualifications and have prospects for better life of their children and families. But if it is case of illegal migration, it is quite another sort of situation: no language, no community, the danger of passing the borders, fear of deportation, absence of documents, no bank credit support, risks of living and working; no insurance, no health care, no voting rights. The studies of advantages and disadvantages are rather disputable. The recipient countries have a great flow of labor force without documents, qualification, agreements, insurance. Migrants are hired to very low scale paid jobs: waste cleaners; window cleaners, welding at night, cemetery workers and so on. But there are no problems with police, administration and other agreements and settlements. So migration gives the rise economics at low costs thanks to cheap labor. People pressed by living conditions try to do their best in order to survive .
It appears that they turn to be very creative and talented in innovation systems, making small and cheap necessary devices and services. They invent a lot of useful things. Some of them made prominent achievements in science and industry and even have been awarded by Nobel Prize. The governments of recipient countries try not to notice the problems of migrants, their birth and death are not registered. They work at companies not responsible for their safety, with low salary, now insurance and any guarantees. Being in this circumstances migrants try not to lose ethnical identity keeping their languages, religious traditions, songs, celebrating native holidays making traditional food. But nobody takes care and responsibility to make them know the laws of their new home country, they hardly follow new traditions and customs they are not taught languages.
All this is possible in situation when the migration flow is controlled as in Russia. In last decades the problem seems to be controlled by Russian government institutions: some laws were adopted, working visas, language courses for newcomers are organized. They have got instructions explaining the Russians laws, customs, communicating with people and administrative institutions, health care, registration, working places and living conditions but it is a very small contribution into the world common process. The migrants come to Russia from Israel, Syria, Egypt, Ukraine and many others.
The situation has significantly changed the last years especially in European countries due to political and economic situation of many Arabian and Asian countries: Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, Syria and others. The migration from the countries is the reason by uncontrolled situation, bombing “Isis” war regime, homeless people, hunger, no living, working conditions, due to “Arabic spring”, organized by USA and all that sort of the so-called democratic changes. The flow of migrating people is about 2000000 people, and exceeding all the limits, which European countries may accept and house. The people are migrating with all their families, with children in small and unreliable boats and vehicles.
According to the UNO statistics, the problem of migration was discussed to increase the benefits for all in October 2016 at the UNO meeting in September. In 2016 the number of migrants was about 232 million people that are 3.2% of the all world population. These are the people able to work from 20 to 64, where the women are 48%. The UNO try to find the measures of cooperation between the countries involved in this process to increase the benefits for all parties, so as to decrease negative consequences of migration. On global scale, the largest groups of migrants have come out of Asian, African, Arabian and Latin American countries. In 2013, more than 12 million people have come to Europe. Fast growth of migration is taking place in the countries of South Eastern with highly developed economics in Pacific Ocean countries. 45 million migrants are living in USA, in Russia-10 mn, Germany-10 mn, in United Arabian Emirates-7mln; in Spain-6 mn people are registered annually .
In 2015, Europe has officially registered more than 660 000 people. It may be comparable to 1990 in the period of war in Yugoslavia all the boarding countries undertake the unprecedented measures. The European Union has faced the uncontrolled migration chaos. It has been seeking for any decision favorable for everybody. The most promising countries in European Union are Germany, Switzerland, UK and Sweden. The Eastern European Countries are not ready to accept migrants. They want to establish quotes according to the number of population and unemployment. Europe discusses the problem of sharing the migrants among all the European countries.
The 71st session of general assembly of UNO in 2016 has discussed the problems of migration on global scale globalization is the recognized fact. We are living in the world where the migration is the keystone of it. Migration significantly influences all the global economics and it continues its growth. Foreign workers sent home about 400 billiard dollars annually. More than 4 mn people are migrating every year and 2.5 mn are moving abroad for season works. The total number of migrants in the world is 200 mn people. In last decades it has become easier to move to other country for young people, eager to get education . The number of students has increased three times. Nevertheless nobody has the statistics how many of them have stayed forever. The term “global talent” has become fashionable in countries trying to attract young and capable graduates, businessman, and highly qualified specialists by new abilities and chances for better life.
Thus, the world has become a great playground for realization any start-ups by foreign young brilliant brains, students, talents and ambitious young scientists. It is necessary to note that Netherland employs 30% of migrants in different service centers, 29% in (ore) mining industry in Germany, 30% in building industry in Greece, 13% in hotel and restaurant business in Austria, 24% in medicine and social service in Norway.
About 440 000 people moved from Russia abroad last 5 years; Some data gives the statistics – 30 mn Russian people are living in foreign countries. Most popular countries for Russian people to migrate are: Israel, Germany, Canada, Finland, Greece, Spain, Italy, and Prague. They are buying real estate in Check, Bulgaria, and Cyprus. The highly qualified specialists with diplomas and science degrees decide the leave Russia .
According to the Fronted data in 2015 about 2 mn migrants arrived to Europe. They must be supplied by living, clothes, medicine and health-care hygienic. They get 135 euro monthly for pocket money, those who left the hostel-camps should have 354 euro monthly, and the only condition is to know the German law.
As mass media put it, illegal migration is very beneficial kind of criminal business. The careers take about some thousand euros from a person to get to Europe. Tragedies of drowning are very often. In 2015 in Mediterranean more than 3000 people have drowned. The European Union tries to solve the problem with the help of military ships, air planes, quad copters which have been accompanying them and monitoring the situation in this area.
The process is quick and unpredictable. So “no kind policy” to immigrants can help to take the situation under control.
The Europe faced with unaffordability of the “newcomers”: they do not want to work, they leave the mounts of trash in the streets, they do not follow the instructions, they do not obey authorities, they are aggressive to native Europeans and they attack women and old, they are stealing things, money, they are suffering of dangerous diseases, they are not vaccinated. The flow may “sweep down” all the European economics and tolerance. The aging European population is feeding the young, masculine, educated (in most cases), aggressive and lazy migrants not having any intensions to integrate the new community. More and more money is needed to keep them. The most of Europeans are protesting in demonstrations, manifestations, meetings but it seems nobody tries to hear them and to listen to them. The situation is tense and almost dangerous. The right and ultra-right political parties, legal and illegal groups try to take the situation under control; they patrol the cities, punish the murders and criminals, fire on their hostels, the war is declared .
In addition native population does not leave their houses in darkness, barricade their flats and the police do not take any preventive and protective measures. It is difficult to understand where the hosts are and where are the guests. More than 5000 refugees are sent back homes. However nobody sees the way out. The voices with possible solutions are very weak: to quote the migrants, not to give citizenship visas; to assimilate them not to give free grants for education, to keep them in special camps in labor colonies and so on.
But the main idea is connected with politics: — these are the consequences of “democratic springs” in Arabian and Asian world. The attacks and bombing the peaceful cities of prosperous Iraq, Syria, Libya and many other oil explorative countries into ruins forced the homeless population to move to European democratic world. It has been calculated that by 2050 the number of migrants may achieve 321 mn people.
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MIGRATION AS A GENERAL PROCESS
G.V. Astashova, candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor
N.V. Dyorina, candidate of philological sciences, associate professor
E.A. Filina, student
Nosov Magnitogorsk state technical university
Abstract. Migration is the process tracing back to the first settlements of ancient tribes. Ancient people migrated from the island to island, from one territory to another, to the areas with more comfortable climatic and economic conditions. For all the times migration was risky and dangerous. The people faced climatic disasters, river falls, fires, snowfalls and snowstorms, hunger, hurricanes, cold, unfriendly meeting of native people in other lands. So migration has always been a challenge for the people migrating to other living areas. Thus migrating may be individual, in groups or Great Resettlement of nations. Migration has always been presented in all countries and continents. The people were seeking for better life, more comfortable climate, conditions to find and produce food and cattle, to grow up children, trying to avoid wars and disasters. The reasons of migration fall in the European countries are performed in the study.
Keywords: migration, settlement, areas, comfortable climatic and economic conditions, risky and dangerous, challenge.